An Oracle database is a collection of data treated as a unit. The main purpose of a database is to store and retrieve related information.
The Oracle database manages a large amount of data in a multiuser environment, so that many users can concurrently access the same data with efficient data consistence. This is accomplished while delivering high performance. At the same time, it prevents unauthorized access and provides efficient solutions for failure recovery.
The Database architecture is combined with logical and physical structures. Both Physical and Logical structures are separate, the physical storage of data can be managed without affecting the access to logical storage structures. Below blue print picture gives you different logical and physical components and internal interaction while processing data in Database.